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Andromeda

The Chained Lady

Andromeda is a large constellation in the northern hemisphere. It is one of the 48 original Ptolemaic Constellations.
For a brief overview of the main stars of the constellation, click the Astronomy icon.

For an alphabetic listing of the constellation's main object in different cultures, click the Index icon.

Ancient Babylon

In ancient Mesopotamia the stars of the constellation later known as Andromeda belonged to three different asterisms.

mulAPIN, "The Plow" was formed by γ Andromedae and the stars of Triangulum.

mulAPIN was the first constellation in Babylonian star catalogues, lending the name MUL.APIN to these early tables.

I-IKU, "The Field" was seen as the field worked over by "The Plow." It is an asterism now known as the Great Square of Pegasus, formed by α, β and γ Pegasi together with α Andromedae.

Apin, Anunitun and 1-Iku; stars of Andromeda highlighted by the author
Source: Dream Voyager
Anunitum consisted of the stars of the northern fish of Pisces, together with β and δ Andromedae and some of the neighboring stars.

Danielle Adams traces the origin of the Great Fish of the Arabian Desert (see below) back to ancient Babylon but points out that it is unknown when this constellation was first recognized.

Sources: Gavin White, J.H. Rogers, Danielle Adams
Anunitum, the Great Babylonian Fish
Source: Danielle Adams


Anunitum, the patron goddess of the Sumerian city of Akkad was closely affiliated to Inanna-Ishtar, the Mesopotamian goddess of love, beauty, sex, war, justice and political power.

Inanna-Ishtar was sometimes envisioned holding a sacred fish and a dove. As a seasonal symbol, the fish of Anunitum represented river carps swiming upstream during the spring floods of the Tigris river.

Also called "Lady of the Heavens", Anunitum was a spiritual guide. Like the carps on the way to their spawning grounds, she guided the sun on its ascending path from the darkness of winter towards spring.

The name KA.MUSH.I.KU.E (The Deleter) in the MUL.APIN Tables is interpreted as the name of either β Andromedae or α Cassiopeiae.

Sources: Wikipedia, J.H. Rogers: Origins of the ancient constellations, Gavin White: A brief guide to the Babylonian constellations
A number of stars of Andromeda, together with Cassiopeia were also part of the Babylonian constellation called LU-LIM, the Stag or the Messenger of the Stars.

According to Gavin White, the stag "... is frequently associated with the sun and the rekindling of fire sometimes it is even portrayed pulling the chariot of the sun instead of the more familiar horse. The constellation of the Stag rises just after mid-winter and is no doubt stationed in this region of the heavens to symbolize the rebirth of the sun after its winter-time death."

Click here, to see a map ob Babylonian constellations, compiled by J.H. Rogers.

Sources: Gavin White, J.H. Rogers.
Stag constellation drawn by the author with Andromeda part in red.

An unidentified object in the MUL.APIN Tables is called dHARRIRU, the Rainbow.
J.H. Rogers sees a possibility that this might be the Andromeda Galaxy.

Source: J.H. Rogers

Ancient Greece

The Greek legend of Perseus and Andromeda inspired hundreds of plays, poems, novels, operas, songs and paintings. It is believed to be the origin of the legend of Saint George and the Dragon and it unites no less than seven classic Greek constellations: Andromeda, Perseus, Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Pisces, Cetus and Pegasus (eight including the now obsolete Caput Medusae).

In Greek mythology, Aethiopian princess was the daughter of king Cepheus and queen Cassiopeia. One day, vain Cassiopeia boasted that her daughter was more beautiful than the Nereids. The Nereids, the god-like spirits of the Aegean Sea took offense on Cassiopeia's statement and asked Poseidon to punish her for her arrogance.

Poseidon's response is swift. First, he floods the Aethiopian coast (ancient Aethiopia should not be confused with today's land-locked Ethiopia). Then, he sends the sea monster Cetus to further torment the Aethipians.

In despair, king Cepheus questions the Oracle of Ammon and is told that the only way to appease the monster is to sacrifice his daughter. So, Andromeda, who had no part in the whole ordeal is chained to a rock by the sea near Jaffa, the ancient port of what is today Tel Aviv and Cassiopeia can only helplessly watch the scene unfolding as the result of her vanity.

At the last minute, the savior arrives at the scene. Hero Perseus first mistakes Andromeda for a marble statue, but then notices her tears and deceits to save her - after he asked her parents for her hand in marriage.

Perseus had just returned from his battle with Medusa the evil Gorgon whos look could turn people into stone. Perseus still held Medusa's cut-off head in his hand. In the original version of the legend, Perseus fights Cetus using a magical Harpe Sword, the same one he used to kill Medusa. In later versions (dating back to the 2nd century AD, Perseus petrifies Cetus, using Medusa's head.

The head of the Medusa came in handy one more time. After the defeat of Cetus, the young couple still has to overcome one more obstacle: Andromeda had previously been engaged to her uncle Phineus. When Phineus showed up at Andromeda's and Perseus' wedding, claiming older rights, Perseus lets him look at Medusa's head, which turns Phineus into stone.

The couple has to live through some more adventures. Eventually, they settle down in Tiryns, where they raise seven sons and two daughters. After her death, the goddess Athena places Andromeda in the sky, together with Perseus (holding Medusa's head), Cassiopeia, Cepheus and Cetus.

Perseus liberates Andromeda
Apulian vase, ca. 425 BC; Source: Wikimedia

Chained Andromeda
Aberystwyth Folios 11th century AD; Wikimedia

Andromeda, Perseus and the slain Cetus
House of Poseidon, Zeugma,Turkey;
2nd-3rd century AD; mosaicblues.blogspot.com

Two other constellations are also related to the story of Andromeda and Perseus.

Pisces, the fishes are sometimes seen as a symbol for Dictys, the brave and kind fisherman who recused princess Dana and her infant son Perseus, after Dana's father, king Acrisius of Argos abandoned them at sea in a wooden box.

Pegasus, the winged horse was born from the stump of Medusa's neck after Perseus had decapitated her.

Together, these eight constellations form the most complex celestial illustration of any Greek myth. The image to the right shows a section of Albrecht Drer's engraving of the Northern Skies, displaying seven of the constellations. (Cetus is depicted in the engraving of the Southern Skies).

Sources: Wikipedia, Ian Ridpath

Part of Albrecht Drer's engraving of the Northern Skies
Nuremberg, 1515; Source: Ian Ridpath

The Nereids

In Greek mythology, the Nereids were female spirits of sea waters, called Nymphs.

The 50 sisters were the daughters of sea god Nereus and sea goddess Doris.

Unlike other famous sisters like the Pleiades or the Hyades, the Nereids are not associated with any object visible to the naked eye. But many of the sisters can be seen through telescopes. They can be found in the Asteroid Belt, in the orbit of Neptune and - most recently - the Kuiper Belt.

Given their close relationship with Poseidon (who in Roman mythology became Neptune, it is only fitting that one of Neptune's largest moons (discovered in 1949 by Gerard Kuiper) was named Nereid.

Nereid Monument, ca. 390 BC
Source: Wikipedia

Six of Neptune's other moons are named after Nereids: Galatea was discovered in 1989 on photographs taken by the Voyager 2 probe. Halimede, Laomedeia, Neso, Psamathe and Sao were discovered between 2002 and 2007, using large telescopes on Earth.

Galatea also gave her name to asteroid 74 Galatea, discovered in 1862 and the first object named after a Nereid. Other asteroids named after Nereids are 185 Eunike and 427 Galene. The Nereids' parents can also be found in the Asteroid Belt as 4660 Nereus and 48 Doris.

In 2006, Actaea a small natural satellite of Dwarf Planet candidate Salacia became the first Kuiper Belt object named after a Nereid.

Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Church in the ancient city of Petra in today's Jordan shows a Floor mosaic, portraying a lady named Verina.

Verina shows all the attributes of Andromeda, including Perseus' weapon, the magical Harpe.

The image can be interpreted as a transition from the Mesopotamian image of Anunitum to the Greek image of Andromeda.

Source: Stars of Venice

Verina; 5th century AD.
Source: Venitian Andromeda

Sceptrum et Manus Iustitiae

In 1679, French architect Augustin Royer published a star map that included two creations of his own, both honoring his patron, King Louis XIV.

One was called Lilium, the Lily, referring to the fleur-de-lis, the symbol of French royalty. It was located in the northern part of Aries.

The other one, called Sceptrum et Manus Iustitiae (Latin for scepter and hand of justice), was located at the end of Andromeda's chains.

The main stars used for this constellation were ι, κ, λ, ο and ψ And.

Sources: Wikipedia, SkyEye

Sceptrum et Manus Iustitiae by Corbinianus Thomas
Source: Altea Gallery

Honores Friderici

In 1787, German astronomer Johann Bode used the same stars as Augustin Royer 110 years earlier, to honor his patron, Prussian king Frederick the Great, who had died the year before.

Originally, in his "Astronomical Yearbook" (Astronomisches Jahrbuch), Bode called his creation Friedrichs Ehre, meaning Frederic's Honor.

In his star map Uranographia, published in 1801, he latinized the name to Honores Friderici and depicted the constellation as a crown above a sword, a pen and an olive branch, illustrating the perception of the "philosopher on the throne" as a "hero, sage and peacemaker."

Gloria Frederici in Urania's Mirror

In the popular star atlas Urania's Mirror, published in 1827, it was called Gloria Frederici, Frederick's Glory.

Sources: Wikipedia, Ian Ridpath, SkyEye, astrocultura.uai.it

Sepulchri XPI Triumphatoris

In 1627, German lawyer and astronomer Julius Schiller published a star map called Coelum Stellatum Christianum (The Christian Starry Heaven). It was an (unsuccessful) attempt to replace the "pagan" constellations with Biblical names and themes.

The constellations of the northern hemisphere were replaced by themes from the New Testament.

Andromeda became Sepulchri XPI Triumphatoris, the Holy Sepulchre, the location of the two holiest sites in Christianity:
The site where Jesus was crucified and Jesus's empty tomb, where he is believed to have been buried and resurrected.

Sources: Wikipedia, SkyEye

Sepulchri XPI Triumphatoris
Source: Wikipedia

As-Samakatan - Two Fishes in the Arabian Desert

Before Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi and other Arabic astronomers adopted Ptolemy's constellations, people on the Arabian Peninsula had their own way to navigate the sky, creating constellations like Lam, Ostriches and Vulture.

Some of their constellations were based on patterns first developed in Mesopotamia 4,000 years earlier.

Danielle Adams at the University of Arizona in Tucson has developed an excellent project called Arab Star Calendars to preserve the astronomical knowledge of the people of the Arabian Desert.

The two fish; presentation by Danielle Adams
Source: Arab Star Calendars
Danielle Adams points out that "not all features of the Two Fish were necessarily shared by the same group of people. This listing is necessarily anachronistic because of the limited information that remains."

In her description, the Great Fish, al-ḥūt or as-samaka al-azima consisted of β, ν and μ Andromedae, υ, φ, χ and ψ Piscium, η, ζ, ε, δ and π Andromedae and the Andromeda_Galaxy.

β Andromedae receives a special mentioning as batn al-ḥūt, the "Belly of the Fish."

George R. Davis, Jr. describes al-ḥūt naming the same stars as Danielle Adams, adding ν Piscium and the galaxy M 32 to the list.

According to Danielle Adams, "the Great Fish is a very old asterism dating back to Babylonian times. The Smaller Fish is likely not as old, but its origin is unknown."

In her description, as-samaka as-sughra, the Smaller Fish, consists of γ Andromedae, which is called "The Belly", τ, υ, χ and 51 Andromedae, φ Persei and the double cluster of NGC 869 and NGC 884.

For more information on this ancient Arab constellation, see D. Adams' essay Ancient Fish in the stellar Sea: Remnants of Babylon.

Medieval Arab Astronomy

R.H. Allen reports that Arabian astronomers depicted the constellation as a "Sea Calf, or Seal ... with a chain around its neck that united it to one of the Fishes", as their religion prohibited the reproduction of human images.

Despite religious restrictions, Persian astronomer al-Sufi presented Andromeda as a human being. His Book of Fixed Stars (ca. 964) was an illustrated synthesis of Ptolemys Almagest with Arabic astronomical traditions on the constellations.

Al-Sufi presented the stars in Ptolemys constellations with Arabic names, many of which are still in use toady.

Source:Wikipedia

Al-Sufi's version of Andromeda
non-dated copy from Samarkand
Source: Venetian Andromeda
α Alpheratz سرة الفرس surrat al-faras The Navel of the Mare
β Mirach مئزر mīzar Girdle
γ Almach العناق al-anāq The Desert Lynx
δ Sadiradra صدر العذراء sadar aleadhra Virgin's Breast
ι Keff al-Salsalat كف المسلسلة kaf al-musalsala The Palm of the chained Woman
ξ Adhil الذيل a-ayl The Tail
Official names derived from Arabic origins are shown in bold.

The name of Andromeda's brightest star Alpheratz ( α And) is derived from the Arabic surrat al-faras "the navel of the mare." another traditional Arabic name was rās al-mar'a al-musalsala, "the head of the woman in chains". The "mare" refers to Pegasus, while the "woman in chains" of course was Andromeda.

Until 1928 when the IAU explicitly defined the boundararies of the constellations (published in 1930), Alpheratz was considered a star of both constellation.

Source: Wikipedia

Mirach, (β And) was originally called janb al-musalsalah, "The Side of the Chained Lady" by medieval Arab astronomers. That name clearly referred the the Andromeda legend, while another common Arab name, qalb al-ḥūt, the "Heart of the Fish," referred to the al-ḥūt constellation.

Qalb al-ḥūt was also the central star of the 28th Arabic Lunar Mansion, baṭn al-ḥūt.

The current name comes from the star's description in the Alfonsine Tables as super mizar, which later became Merach. The Arabic word mizar (مئزر) means "girdle," referring to Mirach's position at the left hip of the princess.

Sources:Wikipedia, Ihsan Hafez: Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi and his book of the fixed stars: a journey of re-discovery

Almach (γ And) is derived from the Arabic al-anāq, meaning Desert Lynx. In 2016, the name was officially approved by the IAU.

Traditionally, referring to the Andromeda myth, the star was also known as rijl al musalsalah, the "Foot of The Chained Woman."

In his star catalogue Pearls of Brilliance, 17th centrury Egyptian astronomer Muḥammad al-Akhṣāṣī al-Muwaqqit called γ And al khamis al na'amah, the "fifth ostrich."

Source:Wikipedia

Sadiradra (δ And) comes from the Arabic sadar aleadhra, the virgin's breast.

Source: Osservatorio Astronomico di Monteromano

Keff al-Salsalat is the name al-Muwaqqit used for ι Andromedae, derived from kaf al-musalsala, the palm of chained woman.

Source: Wikipedia

The traditional Arab name Adhil (ξ And) comes from the Arab word a-ayl, meaning train or tail - most likely another reference to the al-Ḥūt constellation.

Source: Wikipedia

1125 copy of Al-Sufi's Andromeda
Doha Museum of Islamic Art

13th century copy of
Al-Sufi's Andromeda
Source: alamy.com

Andromeda and Pisces, ca. 1450
Aga Khan Museum, Toronto, Canada

Undertermined Star Names in Andromeda

Nembus is the official name for the star 51 Andromedae. The name was used in 1603 by Bayer in his Uranometria and in 1801 by Bode in his Uranographia. However, the origin of the name remains undetermined.

Source: Wikipedia

Andromeda Galaxy in al-Sufi's Book of Fixed Stars

The Andromeda Galaxy is the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way. Although its true character as a galaxy was not recognized until 1917, it was known to astronomers as a "nebula" at least since the 10th century.

Of all the about 6,000 objects in the night sky that can be seen with the naked eye, the Andromeda Galaxy is the one furthest away from Earth (about 2.5 mil. light years).

Al-Sufi refers to it as al-Laṭkhāal-Saḥābiya, the nebulous smear or smudge and as al-Ishtibākal-Saḥābi, the nebulous mass.

14th century copy of al-Sufi's depiction of the Andromeda Galaxy
Sources: University of Oregon, Universitt zu Kln

A 14th century copy of al-Sufi's depiction of the Andromeda Galaxy shows the galaxy at the mouth of Andromeda's fish.

Source: Ihsan Hafez, Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi and his book of the fixed stars: a journey of re-discovery

Ancient India

In Hindu astronomy, α Andromedae and γ Pegasi form Uttara Bhādrapadā, the Twenty Seventh Lunar Mansion or Nakshatra.

This Nakashtra is ruled by Shani, the god of Karma, justice and retribution in Hindu religion.

Source: Wikipedia

Hindu mythology has its own version of the story of Andromeda, Cassiopeia and Perseus. In this legend, Andromeda is Devayani, daughter of the sage Shukracharya, while Cassiopeia is personified as the princess Sharmishtha.

Here is the story as told by Wikipedia:

"One day Sharmishtha, daughter of the Danava king Vrishparva and Devayani, daughter of the Daitya sage Shukracharya, go with Sharmishtha's retinue to bathe in a forest pool not far from their home. After bathing, Sharmishtha confuses Devayani's sari with hers and puts it on instead. Devayani returns, scolds Sharmishtha for her mistake and belittles her with the jibe that she is the daughter of Shukracharya (Shukracharya being a sage and high priest and indeed the guru of all the Asuras - no mere employee) as Vrishparva's and their Kingdom lives on his blessings. This slur on herself and her father Vrishparva infuriates Sharmishtha with the help of her servants throws the naked Devayani into a well and leaves the forest with her retinue.

Later Yayati, son of Nahusha, comes to the well for water and helps Devayani to climb out of it. She tells him that as he held her right hand, he should be her husband. Yayati becomes the constellation we know as Perseus.

Source: Wikipedia

Shani; Wikipedia

Yayati rescues Devyani
BP Banerjee

The story of Devayani and Yayati does, however, not have a happy ending. In the Hindu story of Andromeda, you can read how Sharmishtha re-enters the story. (See here.)
19th century British Geologist John Frederick Blake, quoting 18th century orientalist Francis Wilford reports an even closer analogy with the Greek myth, talking about a constellation called Antarmada, citing an ancient Sanskrit work which "... contained a chapter devoted to Upanacchatras, or extra-zodiacal constellations, with drawings of Capuja (Cepheus), and of Casyapi (Cassiopeia) seated and holding a lotus flower in her hand, of Antarmada charmed with the fish beside her, and last of Parasiea (Perseus) who, according to the explanation of the book, held the head of a monster which he had slain in combat;blood was dropping from it, and for hair it had snakes."

Based on that story, Blake suggested that the Greek myth actually had its origins in India.

Source: John F. Blake: Astronomical Myths - Based on Flammarions's History of the Heavens, provided by Project Gutenberg.
Andromeda chained to the Rock
Rembrandt, ca, 1630; Wikipedia

Ancient China

In Chinese, Andromeda is written 仙 女 座.

In Chinese astronomy, the constellation forms eight asterisms, belonging to six Lunar Mansions, located in the quadrants of the White Tiger of the West and the Black Tortoise of the North.

Chinese asterisms in Andromeda
Map based on seasky.org
Chinese Lunar Mansions in Andromeda
Map based on seasky.org
Centered around ο Andromedae is Chēfǔ, a Big Yard for Chariots, part of the Twelfth Lunar Mansion, which is called Wēi, the Rooftop. The asterism extends into the constellation Lacerta.

Tngsh, the Flying Serpent covers λ, ψ, κ and ι Andromedae and a number of fainter stars. The Serpent is part of the Thirteenth Lunar Mansion, called Sh, the Encampment and extends into the constellation Lacerta.

B, the Wall is the name of the Fourteenth Lunar Mansion. It is also the name of an asterism formed by α Andromedae and the stars around γ, ψ and φ Pegasi, representing the eastern wall of the Emperors palace grounds and the Emperors private reference library.

Also part of the Fourteenth Lunar Mansion is an asterism called Tiānji, the Celestial Stable, consisting of θ, ρ and σ Andromedae and some other faint stars.

Flying Serpent; Source Chinese Bestiary

Palace Walls; Source 123rf.com

The 12th, 13th and 14th Lunar Mansions mentioned above are part of the Black Tortoise of the North; the following Lunar Mansions are located in the White Tiger of the West.

The Fifteenth Lunar Mansion is called Ku. Wikipedia translates Ku as "Legs." Ian Ridpath adds that "... its shape resembles that of a foot or sandal; perhaps it is the rear legs or feet of the White Tiger. ... Alternatively, Ku was said to represent a wild boar."

In the wild boar interpretation, ζ Andromedae is seen as Tiānshǐm (天豕目), the Celestial pig's eye.

Ku is also the name of an asterism. Its primary star is η Andromedae. It is joined by β, δ, ε, ζ, μ, ν and π Andromedae and extends into the constellation Pisces.

Wikipedia identifies φ Andromedae as Jūnnnmn, the southern gate to the headquarters of Tiānd jiāngjūn (see below), also located in the 15th Lunar Mansion. However, Ian Ridpath argues that "... this star is too far north to be described as a southern gate," and suggests α Trianguli for this position.

Tiānd jiāngjūn, Heaven's Great General, is an asterism in the Sixteenth Lunar Mansion, called Lu, Bond.

Primary star in the Great General is γ Andromedae. The General is surrounded by ten subordinate officers, including ξ, τ, υ, χ and ω Andromedae as well as φ Persei.

The faint stars 63, 64, 65 and 66 Andromedae are part of Dlng, the Mausoleum, which extends into Perseus and is part of the Seventeenth Lunar Mansion, called Wi, the Stomach.

Sources: Wikipedia, Ian Ridpath.


Ming Dynasty Black Tortois
Beijing Capital Museum

White Tiger of the West; Tamara

North America

Cree

In the creation story of the Ininew Cree in today's Alberta, Canada, the first two people came down from the land above to the land where the Cree now live on a line lowered by Kokominakasis, Grandmother Spider. They did not heed the warnings that only one person may look down from the spider's line and when both looked, they fell into the great eagle-nest. They were rescued by a wolverine and a bear, the latter of whom taught the pair the ways of life on this new land.

Grandmother Spider
Native Skywatchers



Native Skywatchers identified the stars of Andromeda as the Ininew constellation Kokominakasis.

Source: Spoken Cree

Navajo

Tinl, the Gila Monster constellation is situated in the northern sky, in Andromeda, close to Cassiopeia.

In Navajo culture, the Gila Monster is a respected reptile. The Gila Monster constellation carries the same connotations and respect as the earthly Gila Monster.

Source: Navajo Skies

Tinl © Melvin Bainbridge

Pacific

Marshall Islands

for the people of the Marshall Islands, the stars of Andromeda and Triangulum formed the body of a porpoise called Ke.

The brightest stars of Aries formed the head of the porpoise, while the bright stars of Cassiopeia formed the tail.

Sources: Wikipedia, Marshallese-English Dictionary

Possible outline of the porpoise
Drawn by the author based on
a map from thoughtco.com

On the Tuamotu Islands, Alpheratz (α And) was called Takurua-e-te-tuki-hanga-ruki, meaning "Star of the wearisome toil" and Mirach (β And) was named Piringa-o-Tautu,literally meaning "the star of a (certain) season of its existence."

Sources: wikipedia, Sergei Rjabchikov: The Ancient Astronomy of Easter Island

NameExoworlds

In the 2015 Name Exoworlds project, two stars and four planets in the constellation Andromeda received official names.


The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada Thunder Bay Centre, Canada suggested the name Veritate, Latin for where there is truth for the star 14 Andromedae.

14 Andromedae b, a planet orbiting the star was named Spe, Latin for where there is hope.

The star υ Andromedae A (one of the components of double star υ And) was named Titawin by the Vega Astronomy Club of Morocco.

Titawin, the historical part of the Moroccan town of Ttouan, which is a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Three planets orbiting υ Andromedae, υ And b, υ And c and υ And d were named Saffar, Samh and Majriti after 11th century Andalusian Arab astronomers.

Source: web.archive.org
Titawin, Anassbarnichou2
The 2019 NameExoWorld project, in which each country on earth could name one star and one exoplanet, added two more names for stars and planets in the Andromeda constellation.

Ethiopia is considered the birthplace of coffee. Star HD 16175 was named Buna, which is the traditional Ethiopian word for Coffee.

Planet HD 16175 b was named Abol after the first of three rounds of coffee in the Ethiopian traditional coffee ceremony.

Sources: IAU100 Name ExoWorlds: Approved Names
Buna ceremony; tiplr.com

The Netherlands were the only country choosing paintings:

Star HAT-P-6 was named Sterrennacht, Dutch for Starry Night, after a famous painting by Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh.

Planet HAT-P-6b was named Nachtwacht, Dutch for Night Watch, after a painting by Dutch painter Rembrandt.

Sources: IAU100 Name ExoWorlds: Approved Names, space.com
Starry Night
Source: Wikipedia
The Night Watch
Source: Wikipedia

Modern Fiction

There are a number of novels and films titled "Andromeda" but most of them have little or nothing to do with the constellation or the Galaxy. For example, the novel and subsequent film The Andromeda Strain is about a deadly extraterrestrial microorganism.

For a list of artwork and literature titled "Andromeda" see Wikipedia.

Andromeda Nebula was a 1957 novel by Soviet writer Ivan Yefremov. The only reference to Andromeda, however was a radio message from the Andromeda Nebula. Other than that, the novel depicted "... a classic communist utopia set in a distant future. Throughout the novel, the author's attention is focused on the social and cultural aspects of the society, and the struggle to conquer vast cosmic distances." [quote: Wikipedia].

In 1959, the novel was translated into English as "Andromeda: A Space-Age Tale." It is considered one of the most significant works of Soviet science fiction. A film based on the novel was produced in 1967.

Source: Wikipedia

The TV series Andromeda, released in 2000 was based on on unused material by Gene Roddenberry, the creator of Star Trek. The story takes place on board the star ship Andromeda Ascendant in a commomwealth spanning three galaxies, the Milky Way, the Triangulum Galaxy and the Andromeda Galaxy

Source: Wikipedia

1959 English edition of Andromeda: A Space-Age Tale
Source: Heritage Auctions

Season 1 DVD of Andromeda TV series
Source: Wikipedia

One of the short stories of the Foundation series by US-American writer Isaac Asimov takes place on Gamma Andromeda V, a fictional planet orbiting Almach (γ And). Written in 1951, at the beginning of the nuclear age, the story describes a nuclear reactor meltdown killing several million people and destroying at least half the planet.

Source: Wikipedia

Foundation, 1951
Source: Wikipedia

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